The literature review examines globalization and landscape architecture as discourse, samples its various meanings, and proposes methods to identify and contextualize its specific literature. Methodologically, the review surveys published articles and books by leading authors and within the WorldCat.org Database associated with landscape architecture and globalization, analyzing survey results for comprehensive conceptual and co-relational frameworks. Three “higher order” dimensions frame the review’s conceptual organization, facilitating the organization of subordinate/subtopical areas of interest useful for comparative analysis. Comparative analysis of the literature suggests an uneven clustering of discipline-related subject matter across the literature’s “higher order” dimensions, with a much smaller body of literature related to landscape architecture confined primarily to topics associated with the dispersion of global phenomena. A subcomponent of this smaller body of literature is associated with other fields of study, but inferentially related to landscape architecture. The review offers separate references and bibliographies for globalization literature in general and globalization and landscape architecture literature, specifically.
- landscape architecture
- literature review
Interest in globalization over the last several decades has prompted extensive related research and publication in the fields of, economics, political science, sociology, public health, geography, anthropology, education, and within the design and planning professions. With the increasing research and publication during this period, more detailed definitions of globalization have emerged, often according to political and social perspective, organizational mission, and disciplinary context. Globalization, as a research topic, has also prompted considerable anecdotal discourse within the discipline of landscape architecture, including the development of an emerging body of critical thought concerning globalization relevant to landscape architecture practice, education, and research. For example, Thayer (2008) speaks of a petro-chemically and technologically dominated landscape increasingly separated by vanishing resources at a local level and interconnected through culture at a global level. Ndubisi (2008) proposes planning and design theory derived from ideas of sustainable regionalism, theories of natural regionalism, and of critical regionalism in response to metropolitan growth and globalization. Bowring, Donald, and Liu, in turn, have described the influence of hegemonic global visual realms, the global export of cultural identity, and the loss of cultural consistency in landscape architecture (Licka & Roehr, 2008). Despite the interest and anecdotal reference, however, no work to date has either identified or situated contemporary discourse concerning globalization and landscape architecture within the larger body of literature on globalization. Accordingly, this article offers a review of contemporary literature, identifying and describing the principal areas of discourse related to globalization in general, and its intersection with contemporary discourse in landscape architecture.
Because globalization has been a topic of discussion for more than three decades; because its related discourses have become extensive in scope, bridging disciplinary boundaries and geographic contexts; and because so little work has been devoted to comprehensive reviews of the topic, this review incorporates methods consistent with what Fiss and Hirsch (2005) describe as a framing process for conceptual organization. As such, the review traces the emergence of globalization as discourse, samples its various emerging meanings, and proposes methods to identify and contextualize the specific literature related to globalization and landscape architecture.
In light of the fact that the literature on globalization is both multidisciplinary and discipline specific, the review examines the existing literature comprehensively, and categorically specific to landscape architecture. Methodologically, the review surveys published articles and books within the WorldCat.org Database using terms related to globalization, in turn analyzing the identified literature for comprehensive conceptual and co-relational frameworks.
Globalization: Definitions and Conceptual Organization
Four general definitions are useful in describing globalization more broadly: The Oxford English Dictionary defines globalization as “the act of globalizing”; from the noun “global”: meaning, “pertaining to or involving the whole world,” “worldwide,” “universal” (Oxford English Dictionary, 2000).
The World Trade Organization (WTO) Director-General, Pascal Lamy (2006) proposes that
Globalization can be defined as an historical stage of accelerated expansion of market capitalism, like the one experienced in the 19th century with the industrial revolution. It is a fundamental transformation in societies because of the recent technological revolution which has led to a recombining of the economic and social forces on a new territorial dimension (see http://www.wto.org/english/news_e/sppl_e/sppl16_e.htm).
The United Nations Poverty and Development Division (1999) adds that “[w]hile the definition of globalization varies with the context of analysis, it generally refers to an increasing interaction across national boundaries that affects many aspects of life: economic, social, cultural, and political.”
And the World Health Organization (2006) states
Globalization, or the increased interconnectedness and interdependence of people and countries, is generally understood to include two interrelated elements: the opening of borders to increasingly fast flows of goods, services, finance, people and ideas across international borders; and the changes in institutional and policy regimes at the international and national levels that facilitate or promote such flows. It is recognized that globalization has both positive and negative impacts on development.
A brief review of the literature concerning the history of globalization suggests ongoing processes of globalization, which have persisted from ancient through contemporary periods. For example, Hirst and Thompson (1999) describe economic globalization as a continuation of economic internationalization originating in the Industrial Revolution. Hopkins (2002), examining a much longer period, suggests that globalization is ancient: citing evidence of technological, social, and intellectual interconnections well beyond the local or national level occurring over millennia in many parts of the world. Cited examples of such connections are found in the literature related to the diffusion of religious thought, the expansion of political/military hegemony, and the sociocultural acceptance of agricultural and technological innovation. Anecdotal discipline-related research concerning the antiquity of “sprawl,” the global plant trade, immigration of landscape architects throughout the West during the 18th and 19th centuries, and the globalization of contemporary landscape architecture also suggest interrelationships between globalization and landscape architecture over many centuries (Hewitt & Nassar, 2004).
Fiss and Hirsch (2005) trace the development and use of the term globalization to the early 1970s, suggesting that while scholarly discourse on the topic has increased both in amount and complexity, little consensus seems to exist concerning its definitive boundaries, limitations, and scope. Given this context, they suggest that discourse surrounding globalization still demands considerable interpretation, including the recognition of coexistence and co-evolution of its “claims, its divergent interpretations, and selective citations.” Consistent with Fiss and Hirsch, Fishman (1978) and Fairclough (1992) suggest as corollaries that (a) as contextual discourse increases, so too does diffusion across discursive fields; and (b) that as discursive diffusion increases across topical fields, so too do shared understandings across and within fields.
A preliminary review of the literature, in fact, suggests the presence of such a discursive context at broader scopes of review. For example, a review of published work in the WorldCat.org Database using the term globalization returned 14,784 citations with 5,582 peer-reviewed articles in 2010. In turn, a search of published work in the WorldCat.org Database related to the term globalization and literature reviews noted 634 citations with 634 peer-reviewed citations. A brief examination of this surveyed literature identified a wide range of specific issues, including topics such as globalization and governance (Martinelli & Midttun, 2010), labor in developing regions (Stallings, 2010), urbanization and the natural environment (Clement, 2010), education and literacy (J. Brooks & Normore, 2010), finance and investment (Schularick & Steger, 2010), and politics and media reform (Waisbord, 2010), among many others. No comprehensive literature reviews of the topic of globalization, however, were evidenced in that year’s literature, and no such reviews were identified in the previous decade.
Operationally, the absence of existing comprehensive reviews suggests the worth of preliminary legible and useful organizational structure capable of both interpretation over time, and correlation of shared and unique issues and subject matter. Accordingly, such comprehensive reviews should (a) illustrate a hierarchy of more broadly shared discursive concepts and specific topics, (b) elaborate a range of subcategories capable of relating broader concepts of globalization with specific topics, and (c) provide relevant correlations between shared issues and topics across the discursive subcategories. Please see Figure 1 for an illustration of this conceptual organizational structure.
Globalization: Topical Discourse and Leading Authors
Given the above suppositions, a brief review of topical discourse among leading authors on globalization offers a starting point for the establishment of broadly shared discursive topics, subtopics, and relevant issues suitable for the kind of framing contemplated by Fisch et al.
Saskia Sassen’s work on globalization, for example, addresses topical discourse closely related to migration policy and governance, the emergence of political space, counter-globalization social movements, and globally networked cities. Her identification of “global cities,” as multiple postindustrial, socially and economically polarized urban nodes, and their influence on traditional nation states suggests broader topics of global urbanism and nation-state transformations. Significant subtopics within her work address global capital formation and information flows, transformative technology, and increasing social inequity resulting from globalization. Her work correlates well with discourse originating in multiple disciplines, which include cultural and literary studies, feminist theory, political economics, sociology, and political science.
Arjun Appadurai examines issues of globalization closely related to cultural processes, ethnographic inquiry, and the social influence of media, technology, and finance. Topical discourse within his work addresses ideas of imagination as a social force in the development of identity, of nation-state transformation influenced by mass migration, of electronic mediation of material culture and consumption, and of multiculturalism. His work bridges discursive boundaries related to the disciplines of the social sciences, communication studies, political economics, and anthropology.
Zygmunt Bauman’s elaboration of globalization addresses postmodern social dislocation within the broader discourse of changing global boundaries, institutions, political loyalties, personal security, and economic life. Significant themes evident in his work emphasize aspects of economic individualism, social polarization, placelessness, spatial segregation, security, and poverty. Like Sassen and Appadurai, his work correlates closely with discourses originating in the disciplines of the social science and political economics.
Ulrich Beck extends the topical discourse of globalization to issues of modernization, ecological change, and individualism. His contributions to this discourse include the concepts of “risk societies,” and “reflexive modernization.” Both concepts contemplate modernization in terms of technological change in work and social organizations, individual lifestyle, political repression, and social participation. Principal assumptions underlying these concepts suggest the decline of the nation-state as a result of economic and cultural globalization, and the emergence of wide-spread ecological crisis and environmental risk as predominant byproducts. Specific subtopics addressed in his writings include the origins of transnational social space, economic internationalization, reorientation of education, migration and networked economies, the feminization and naturalization of society, and the diffusion of cosmopolitan society. His work broadly correlates with discourse derived from political economics, the social sciences, environmental sciences, communication studies, and cultural studies.
Michael Featherstone addresses topical areas related to counter-globalization, mobility, transnational networks, and global/local cultural identities. While the broader themes of his work reflect preoccupations with sociocultural reproduction and transformation, particularly noteworthy subtopics in his work address culture as a world system, and international development policy. Preoccupations with the sociocultural aspects of globalization address the transformation of national identity, cosmopolitan culture, transborder cultural conflict, global cultural economy, and the globalization of diversity. Consistent with aspects of Sassen, Appadurai, Bauman, and Beck, his work broadly correlates with discourse associated with the social sciences, political science, economics, and cultural studies.
Walden Bello contributes to globalization discourse associated with the role of market-oriented, transnational corporations, capital formation, and reform of global financial management organizations. Themes in his work associated with economic globalization address bridging the world economy, regional counter-globalization development strategies, and state food security. Important subtopics within his work examine geo-economic competition and sustainable development, democracy and civic society, agriculture and the food industry. His work broadly correlates with discourse in the social sciences, economics, political economics, agricultural economics, economic development, and cultural studies.
Noted author, Manuel Castells extends globalization discourse to the relationship between information and communications technology, urban sociology, culture, and political economy. Castells’ concept of the “space of flows” describes aspects of these relationships, describing urban concentrations of economy, society, and culture, transformed by increasingly horizontal information communications networks, expressions of personal identity, and continually changing cultural context. His concept of “the fourth world” describes groups of excluded urban subpopulations typically identified as nomads, subsistence farmers, and the hyper poor. Castells’s work broadly correlates with discourse in the social sciences, political economics, technology, communication studies, and urban studies.
Sociologist David Held offers worthwhile contributions to the discourse on globalization, national and international politics, global political interrelationships related to leadership, multilateralism, and global governance. Noted subtopics in his work address the changing nature of the modern state, democracy, sovereignty, social justice, sustainability, and cosmopolitanism. His work correlates broadly with discourse in the social sciences and political science.
Economist Joseph Eugene Stiglitz offers topical discourse on the management of globalization, global economic inequities, and the role of pollution in economic and political destabilization. Themes in Stiglitz’s work address institutional transparency, economic opportunity, economic crises, incomplete information markets, monetary, fiscal, tax and trade policies, and economic competition. His work correlates broadly with political economics and economics.
Globalization: Framing Three Broad Dimensions and Their Subcomponents
While consistent with the brief WorldCat.org Database literature survey in the section “Globalization: Definitions and Conceptual Organization,” the prominent authors survey identifies wider ranges and more detailed elaborations of topical discourse on globalization, including discourse related to: political economy, governance, urbanization and the natural environment, education, economics, communication, technology, social inequity, corporate, trade and business processes, global systems and processes, development studies, and cultural and environmental studies, cultural processes, cultural identity, nation-state transformation, mass migration, material culture and consumption, multiculturalism, security, placelessness, media and popular culture, counter-globalization movements, resource conservation, and global crisis assessment and risk, among others.
Given the number and breadth of these topics and the cited operational need for legible organizational structure capable of interpretation over time, Bergesen’s conceptual organization of globalization literature according to dimensions of (a) political and economic processes, (b) large-scale systems and processes, and (c) the diffusion of global phenomena, offers worthwhile framing structures for several reasons (Bergesen, 1980, 1983; Bergesen & Bergesenm, 2001; Bergesen & Parisi, 1999). Bergesen’s three broad dimensions of globalization correlate well with what Fiss and Hirsch describe as “higher order” dimensions as a basis for framing discursive analysis. The use of such higher order dimensions facilitates broad-based organizations of existing literature into a hierarchy of subordinate/subtopical areas of interest useful for comparative analysis in a literature review. And this organizational framework facilitates the use of widely available databases such as WorldCat to identify and correlate contemporary globalization literature. Because WorldCat is widely available as a database, a consistent comprehensive longitudinal literature review is also possible by different authors over long periods of time.
Dimensions of globalization: Political-economic processes
A search of literature in the WorldCat.org Database related to Bergesen’s first dimension of globalization and political-economic processes returned 21.721 citations, of which 11,344 were peer-reviewed articles. A brief review of the subject matter available from this search provided five principal clusters of discourse related to (a) flows of trade and production between countries (Dicken, 1998), (b) intensification of economic competition (Abedian & Biggs, 1998), (c) internationalization of corporate production and sales (K. Lee & Carter, 2005), (d) global governance based on multilateralism or internationalism (Kyoto Protocol, Rio Agreement, North American Free Trade Agreement), and (e) the growing interdependence of existing states (Keohane, 1998). These five clusters, in turn, exhibited subtopical framing, which can be elaborated within the following subtopical reviews.
Discourse Cluster 1: Flows of trade and production between countries
A search of the WorldCat.org Database related to globalization, flows of trade, and production between countries, returned 6,595 citations, 4,668 of which were peer-reviewed articles, concerning its economic, social, and environmental issues. Specific contours evident in the literature related to its economic issues, address business, geography, natural resources governance and law, specifically (a) globalization and theories of trade, and the geography of trade and production (Kamiński & Ng, 2001); (b) trade-related labor and rights, informal institutions, price fixing and international cartels, intellectual property, and international services (Choi & Harrigan, 2003); as well as (c) trade controls, and bilateral trade wars (Fatemi, 1997).
Published work concerning the environmental and social aspects of this topical area broadly addresses (a) national governance and social justice and (b) public health, the environment, agriculture, and security. Bandy and Baldwin provide exemplary studies related to the conflict and social justice aspects within this work in their examination of transnational social movements, transnational environmental justice, and transnational campaigns against child labor (e.g., Baldwin & Winters, 2004; Bandy & Smith, 2005). Taylor and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) offer worthwhile examples of literature in this cluster related to public health and security, including trade in public services and the influence of transnational commodities and natural resource corporations (Taylor & Thomas, 1999); and food system transformation, bioengineered products, rural migration, changes in diet and nutrition, and the spread of communicable disease (FAO, 2004).
Discourse Cluster 2: Intensification of economic competition
A corresponding search of the WorldCat.org Database addressing the intensification of economic competition and globalization, returned 6,777 publications, 4,354 of which were peer reviewed. The contours of this clustered discourse appear to be more narrowly defined than that of the literature related to flows of trade and production, addressing issues of economic competition, politics, technology, business, geography, culture, and sustainability. Subtopics of interest in this cluster, address (a) the relationship between globalization, protectionism, and competition (Faruqee, 2006); (b) intellectual property and competition (Maskus, 2008); (c) competition between political-economic systems, ethnic conflict, and democracy (Mudambi, Navarra, & Sobbrio, 2003); (d) global cities, and global city-regions (Scott, 2001); and (e) sustainability and global cities (Bakker, 2005).
Discourse Cluster 3: Internationalization of corporate production and sales
Publications related to the internationalization of corporate production and sales are also rather narrowly focused, addressing issues of global commerce and business, economic geography, and technology. A search of the WorldCat.org Database in this discursive cluster returned 3,589 citations, 2,956 of which were peer reviewed. A review of specific subtopics in the literature included (a) international distribution of multinational production (Bora, 2002); (b) global economics and technological change, transnational production networks, and logistics and distribution industries (Dicken, 2007); (c) the role of global value chains, international production networks, and enterprise clusters (Abonyi, 2007); (d) enterprise and information systems (Camp, 2004); and (e) global networks and production (Palacios, 2004).
Discourse Cluster 4: Global governance, multilateralism, and internationalism
The WorldCat.org Database survey concerning global governance, multilateralism, and internationalism returned a total of 13,341 citations, 11,311 of which were peer reviewed. Discourse in this cluster to date addressed issues related to change in regional, national, and international relationships related to law, society, economics, culture, politics, security, and the environment. Specific subtopics within the literature address (a) global governance and regional integration of trade and investment, conflict prevention and peacekeeping, and culture and multilateralism (Cooper, Hughes, & De Lombaerde, 2008); (b) participatory multilateralism and international institutions, multiparty social action, and mutual accountability (Ebrahim, 2007); (c) governance and conflicts of interest in international financial institutions, and socially sustainable institutions (Fratianni, Savonna, & Kirton, 2007); (d) multilateralism, and democracy (Cox, 1996); political, economic, and cultural pluralism, (Farhang, 2000); and (e) social environmental change, global civic ethics, migration, and international law (Commission on Global Governance, 1995).
Discourse Cluster 5: The interdependence of existing states
The final cluster identified within Bergesen’s first broad dimension addresses the interdependence of existing states. A search of the WorldCat.org Database returned 1,101 citations with 1,103 of the total peer-reviewed articles. The surveyed literature addressed issues of economics, the environment, development, politics, governance, and law, education and technology. Exemplary subtopics include (a) the global interdependence of trade, aid, migration and development (Aryeetey & Dinello, 2007); (b) transboundary air pollution, regional climate change, management of shared waters, transborder conservation and biodiversity conservation, and interdependence in “green” development (Le Prestre & Stoett, 2006); (c) interdependence between transnational corporations and governments (Buckley & Ghauri, 1999); (d) interdependence of location, education, development, and innovation, and strategic technology partnering (Narula, 2003); (e) interdependence, inequality, identity, and demographics (Bonilla, 1998); (f) interdependence and institutions, international relations, and international law (Keohane, 2002); as well as (g) regionalism, multilateralism, and interdependence (Goddard, Cronin, & Dash, 2003).
Summary discourse concerning political and economic process
As illustrated in Figure 2, the surveyed literature related to the political and economic processes of globalization provides five discursive topical clusters, which, as noted in the elaboration of each cluster above, address 26 subtopical issues represented in the corresponding matrix. As one would expect (considering Fiss et al.’s framing methodologies), the cited subtopical areas within each cluster exhibit great variation in terms of their subject issues. Specifically, shared discursive issues between clusters address subject matter related to economic, environmental, political, technological, geographical, cultural, sustainability, governance, law, and security contours of this dimension. For example, shared economic issues are diffused across the entire range of clustered discourse, while social, business, educational, medical, and agricultural issues are more clearly nested within unique subtopics of the literature in this dimension. Issues addressing the environment, politics, technology, geography, and law are shared among three of the five discursive subtopics, while issues related to culture, sustainability, governance, and security are shared among two of the five subtopical areas of discourse. Little evidence of discourse related to issues of communication or urbanism was exhibited in this survey. These specific kinds and the extent of shared and unique issues between discursive clusters differ markedly from the following two dimensions as will become evident.
Dimensions of globalization: Large-scale systems and processes
The second dimension related to globalization described by Bergesen addresses issues of large-scale systems and processes. Consistent with review methods related to the political and economic processes of globalization, a search of published articles in the WorldCat.org Database associated with the term globalization and large-scale systems and processes returned 7,524 citations, of which 5,067 were peer-reviewed articles. The subject matter available from this search suggests three principal discursive clusters within the dimension: (a) increasingly relative sovereignty (Agnew, 2009), (b) the replacement of socialist states by market-oriented states (F. Wu, 2009), and (c) the weakening of state primacy, autonomy, and international systems (Coleman, Weaver, & Streeter, 2009). These three clusters also exhibit subtopical framing, as evidenced in the following reviews for each discursive cluster.
Discourse Cluster 1: Relative sovereignty
A search of published articles in the WorldCat.org Database related to globalization and relative sovereignty identified 3,384 citations, 1,679 of which were peer-reviewed articles. The surveyed literature addresses issues related to politics, economics, law, human and civil rights, security, social and environmental justice, women’s empowerment, global consumer culture, capital, and identity. Specific subtopics within the literature include (a) human rights, environmental multilateralism, economic justice, and security (Newman, Thakur, & Tirman, 2006); (b) ethnic and national identity, civil rights and civil society, and religion, terrorism, and revolution (O’Neil, 2007); (c) globalization and empowerment, citizens’ sovereignty, and the empowerment of women (Kartik & Sideras, 2006), (d) cultural identity and global capital (Friedman & Randeria, 2004); (e) sovereignty, territoriality, and the globalization of finance (Smith, Solinger, & Topik, 1999); and (f) global consumer culture, community justice, environmental racism, and international water rights (Welton & Wolf, 2001).
Discourse Cluster 2: Replacement of socialist states by market-oriented states
The clustered discourse related to the replacement of socialist states by market-oriented states exhibits considerable breadth. A search of the literature in the WorldCat.org Database provided 2,229 citations with 1,960 peer-reviewed articles. Issues evidenced in this literature included communications, sustainability/development, technology, culture, economics, social justice, the environment, education, security, and politics. Specific subtopics included (a) communication and state transformation, and markets and cultural transformation (Chakravartty & Zhao, 2008); (b) world heritage and socialist states, poverty and cosmopolitanism, deregulated markets, and crime (Sassen, 2007); (c) women and the labor markets in socialist and capitalist states (Blossfeld, Buchkolz, & Hofäcker, 2006); (d) capitalism, sustainability and climate change, and global political resistance (Anton & Schmitt, 2007); (e) globalization, class, and multiculturalism, and educational policy and socialist pedagogy (McLaren, 2005); (f) socialist models of development, and technology, poverty and development (Allen & Thomas, 2000); and (g) liberalism, consumerism and democracy, and nationalism and mass culture (X. Zhang, 2001).
Discourse Cluster 3: Weakening state primacy, autonomy, and international systems
This last discursive cluster addresses issues concerning security, international politics and law, education, political and economic regionalization and decentralization, governance, and urbanization. Identified citations were derived from a WorldCat.org Database survey of 2,220 publications, of which 1,900 were peer reviewed. Subtopics within the surveyed literature include (a) the internationalization of education policy and security, and global legal pluralism (Hurrelmann, 2007); (b) globalization, decentralization, and regional trans-governmental interaction (Jun & Wright, 1996); (c) public empowerment outside the nation-state, and new forms of states (Boyer & Drache, 1996; Vanaik, 2007); (d) liberal democracy without the classical state, international organizations as sources of political change (Sakamoto, 1994; Stubbs & Underhill, 2000; van Kersbergen, Lieshout, & Lock, 1999); (e) relationships among states, citizens, and education (Popkewitz, 2000; Vellinga, 2000); and (f) economic globalization and urbanization (Pattnayak, 1996).
Summary discourse concerning large-scale systems and processes
Unlike the surveyed literature associated with Bergesen’s first dimension, the literature related to globalization and large-scale systems and processes exhibits a narrower range of clustered topical discourse (specifically, 3 subtopics, and 19 subtopics) with more shared issues across the entire range of subtopics and an equal number of unique issues among subtopics, as illustrated in Figure 3. Like Bergesen’s first dimension, subtopical areas within each cluster exhibit great variation in terms of their subject matter. Shared discursive issues between clusters address, to varying degrees, subject matter related to economic, social, environmental, political, cultural, educational, governance, law, and security contours of this dimension. For example, shared economic, political, and security issues are diffused across the entire range of clustered discourse, while technological, sustainability, business, communications, and urbanism issues appear as unique subtopics of the literature of the dimension. Issues addressing society, environment, culture, education, governance, and law are shared by two of the three discursive subtopics, while issues related to geography, medicine, and agriculture were not represented within the surveyed literature. As with the literature related to globalization and political and economic processes, cited literature within this dimension exhibits great variation in terms of its subject matter.
Dimensions of globalization: Dispersion of global phenomena
The third dimension related to globalization described by Bergesen addresses the dispersion of global phenomena. Consistent with review methods for the previous two dimensions of globalization, a search of published articles in the WorldCat.org Database related to the dispersion of global phenomena returned 4,735 citations, 2,184 of which were peer-reviewed articles. The subject matter available from this search suggests two principal discursive clusters within the dimension: (a) the simultaneous dispersion of global phenomena locally (Hansen, 2002) and (b) the subsequent transformation of social and economic space (MacKinnon & Cumbers, 2007).
Discourse Cluster 1: The simultaneous dispersion of global phenomena locally
A search of the WorldCat.org Database related to the term globalization and the simultaneous dispersion of global phenomena locally resulted in 1,399 citations, 885 of which were peer-reviewed articles. A review of this literature identified broader issues related to bioethics and medicine, society, material culture, agriculture, media/communications, geography, design (including landscape and architecture), and technology. Specific subtopics within the literature included (a) global markets in body parts, new and resurgent disease, electronic money, and local currency (Mander & Goldsmith, 1996); (b) indigenous culture (Graeber, 2007); (c) globalization and foods (Brunn, 2006); (d) world society and regional cultures, global communication, and the “construction of place and space (Rossi, 2007); (e) phenomenology and global material culture, place and landscape, and technology as material culture (Tilley, 2006); (f) distributed work, face-to-face communication, and computer-mediated groups (Hinds & Kiesler, 2002); and (g) media and conflict studies (Cottle, 2006).
Discourse Cluster 2: The transformation of social and economic space
A search of the WorldCat.org Database for the last of the clustered discourses related to globalization and the transformation of social and economic space returned 3,715 citations, with 3,030 of those peer reviewed. The literature from this search addressed broader issues related to geographic transformation, epidemiology, culture, economic and social geography, the environment, sustainability, communication and identity, design (landscape architecture and architecture), and urbanism. Specific subtopics within the literature include (a) transitory sites and “forgotten” urban public space, hyper-modernization and hyper-tradition (Elsheshtawy, Sintusingha, Stallmeyer, Qian, & AlSayyad, 2006); (b) indigenous health, disease and the social organization of space (Green & Labonté, 2008); (d) commercial space and globalization, gender relations, and media and globalization (Somayaji & Somayaji, 2006); (e) ancient network societies, modern resistance identities, foreign self and familiar other (Scham & LaBianca, 2006); (f) urban environmentalism, sustainability, geopolitics of urban informality (Brand, 2005; Roy & AlSayyad, 2004); and (g) the hyper-differentiation of space, and autonomous public spheres (O’Loughlin, Staeheli, & Greenbergeds, 2004).
Summary discourse concerning dispersion of global phenomena
In summary, the surveyed literature related to Bergesen’s third dimension concerning the dispersion of global phenomena illustrates a narrower range of topical clustered discourse than those concerning either political-economic processes or large-scale systems and processes of globalization. As illustrated in Figure 4, the survey identified two topical discursive clusters compared with three and five in the previous two dimensions, and 14 subtopics compared with 19 and 26 in the other two dimensions. Unlike the other two dimensions, the shared areas of discourse are more limited within this dimension. Its shared issues include geographical, cultural, medical, and communications. This dimension also includes the most unique issues, including those related to: economics, society, the environment, technology, agriculture, and urbanization. It also addresses the fewest issues, with no literature evident related to politics, sustainability, business, education, governance, law, and security. As observed in the discourse of the other two dimensions, discursive clusters are more differentiated within the specific subtopics of their cited publications, and exhibit great range and variation.
Summary discourse concerning the three dimensions of globalization
As illustrated in Figure 5, the preceding three surveys of globalization literature suggest the following findings: (a) a broad confirmation of the definitions cited in the Oxford English Dictionary, the WTO Director-General, the United Nations Poverty and Development Division, in the World Health Organization; (b) identifiable contours of a widely differentiated contemporary discourse evident in the writings of prominent authors on the subject; (c) confirmation and elaboration of these discursive contours from WorldCat.org Database surveys in terms of clustered subtopics and disciplinary issues; (d) evidence of the extent of shared disciplinary issues across discursive subtopics; and (e) evidence of potential areas for further development in the discourse of globalization.
Specifically, the reviewed literature suggests
10 clustered discourses describing globalization subsumed within three conceptual dimensions related to political and economic processes, large-scale systems and processes, and global phenomena,
59 subtopical areas nested within the clustered discourses addressing 17 discipline-related issues,
variations in discipline-related issues within the 10 discursive subtopics ranging from 4 to 10 of the 17 identified issues, averaging 7.3 per subtopic, and
variation in shared discipline-related issues across subtopics ranging from 2 to 9, averaging 4.3 issues per subtopic,
a significant degree of shared discipline-related issues between discursive subtopics in economics, social science, politics, the environment, and culture,
minimal amounts of shared discipline-related issues between discursive subtopics related to urbanism and agriculture.
These findings suggest that despite considerable growth in the discourse of globalization during the last several decades, (a) significant areas for discursive development remain within all clustered subtopics; (b) significant opportunities for shared discourse remain between most subtopics; (c) given the remaining potential for further development within the discourse of globalization, considerable change in its discursive contours may be anticipated over time; and (d) given these assumptions, the growth of other discipline-specific inquiry not identified in this literature review.
Globalization and Landscape Architecture
While these general definitions and reviews of the globalization literature offer useful measure of contemporary discourse on globalization in general, a review of the literature related to landscape architecture and globalization (as suggested previously) poses a set of problems related to its contextualization and discursive framing. Accordingly, the remaining review section utilizes (a) the general framing methodology applied above to identify the dimensions, shared topical discourse, and subtopical areas associated with landscape architecture, and globalization as a means to identify and analyze the broadest range of relevant literature; and (b) a review of select literature by prominent authors originating specifically within the landscape architecture discipline.
As a means of establishing this broad range of literature associated with landscape architecture and globalization, a search of published work in the WorldCat.org Database related to those terms resulted in 475 citations, 350 of which were peer reviewed. As anticipated, the survey identified more narrowly defined discipline-specific issues related to landscape architecture, and a body of literature that was more broadly associated with a range of fields related to landscape architecture (see Figure 6). The surveyed literature, which addressed the more narrowly defined issues associated with landscape architecture (dark green in Figure 6) fell primarily within Bergesen’s second and third dimension: Large-Scale Systems and Processes, and Dispersion of Global Phenomena; and primarily addressed discipline-related issues concerning economics, sociology, the environment, politics, technology, culture, sustainability, communications, agriculture, and urbanism.
Issues more broadly associated with other fields, which referenced landscape architecture addressed every subtopical cluster within Bergesen’s first and second dimensions: except those concerning global governance, multilateralism, and internationalism, and replacement of socialist states by market-oriented states. Discipline-specific issues within this surveyed group addressed economics, social sciences, the environment, politics, technology, culture, sustainability, business, education, governance, and security (identified in light green in Figure 6).
Literature in the narrow survey sample evidenced discursive interest in globalization and landscape architecture related to (a) global cities, communications, and architecture (Krause & Petro, 2003); (b) globalization and urban space (Guggenheim & Söderström, 2010); (c) globalization and landscape urbanism (Berger & Crawford, 2006); (d) globalization, identity, and development (Viquar, Broudehoux, Sinha, Shwayri, 1998); (e) globalization, landscape ecology, and sustainability (Musacchio, 2009); (f) globalization and urban agriculture (Malaque & Yokohari, 2007); and (g) pervasive technology and society (Kourouthanassis & Giaglis, 2008); (h) landscape assessment and risk analysis (Calder, Hofer, & Messerli, 2008); (i) transnational sustainability (Keiner & Kim, 2007); (j) ecosystem biodiversity conservation (Perfecto & Vandermeer, 2008); and (k) urban ecology and agriculture (Pope & Kraft, 2004).
As noted, these discipline-specific issues correlated predominantly with Bergesen’s second and third dimensions: Large-Scale Systems and Processes, and the Dispersion of Global Phenomena. Specific subtopical discourse was associated with three of the five discursive clusters, including (a) the simultaneous dispersion of global phenomena locally, (b) the subsequent transformation of social and economic space, and (c) increasingly relative sovereignty.
The literature from the broader survey sample found to fall predominantly within the domain of other fields, including the topics primarily related to urban and cultural studies, politics and economics, and education. Literature from this broader survey sample related to the urban and cultural studies field addressed issues, including (a) globalization and cultural heritage (Kalay, Kvan, & Affleck, 2008), (b) globalization and inequality (Nelson & Seager, 2005), (c) globalization and sociocultural meaning (Elsheshtawy, 2008), (d) globalization and material culture (Tilley, 2006), (e) globalization and urban identity (Lee, 2008), (f) urban public space (Law, 2002), (g) global and urban cultural economies (Latham, 2003), and (h) media and transnational culture (Burd, 2008).
Discursive topics in the broader sample related to fields of politics and economics fell largely within Berensen’s first dimension of globalization: Political and Economic Processes of Globalization. Specific issues in this surveyed literature fell within four of five discursive clusters, including (a) flows of trade and production between countries, (b) intensification of economic competition, (c) internationalization of corporate production and sales, and (d) interdependence of existing states. Issues identified in these clusters addressed (a) globalization, governance, and economic justice (Feher, 2007); (b) globalization and political regionalism (Camilleri, 2003); (c) globalization, governance, security, and natural resources (Lesage, van de Graaf, & Westphal, 2010); (d) economic development and infrastructure management (Zhang, Xu, Zhang, Yi, & Jian, 2010); (e) globalization and technology management (Kamel, 2003); (f) globalization, competition, and consumer values (Zhao & Belk, 2008); and (g) urban cultural political economy (Fumaz, 2009).
The last group in the broader sample addressed education, falling primarily within Bergesen’s first and second dimensions: Large-Scale Systems and Processes, and Political and Economic Processes. Examples of issues in this group included (a) globalization, diversity, and educational empowerment (Chun & Evans, 2009); (b) globalization and educational leadership (Vulliamy, Webb, Sarja, & Hämäläinen, 2006); and (c) education, urban networks, and sustainability (D’Auria, 2001). Specific subtopics were associated in varying degrees with two of eight of the first and second dimension’s discursive clusters, and addressed (a) the interdependence of existing states and (b) the weakening of state primacy, autonomy, and international systems.
As illustrated in Figure 7, these narrowly and broadly identifiable groups suggest the following relationships between the landscape architecture and globalization literature and the more general globalization literature.
Compared with the general literature on globalization, the reviewed literature on landscape architecture and globalization suggests
a narrow group of landscape architecture discourse falling predominantly within Bergesen’s third
dimension addressing all topics found in the general literature on globalization except those related to geographical issues;
a broader group of discourse more closely associated with other fields falling predominantly in Bergesen’s first and second dimensions, which covered many fewer issues than the general literature (14 as compared with 62);
shared discipline-related issues between discursive subtopics in landscape architecture and globalization literature that were less common and much less extensive, which addressed issues associated with: economics, politics, the environment, and culture, and sustainability;
minimal amounts of shared discipline-related issues between discursive subtopics in the landscape architecture and globalization literature, that were predominantly related to sociological and geographical issues, business, communications, education, governance, law, medicine, security, urbanism and agriculture.
These findings suggest, despite the considerable growth in globalization discourse during the last several decades, and despite its relatively large breadth of discursive issues (note: approximately 450 citations in landscape architecture compared with approximately 34,000 citations in globalization in general), that landscape architecture–related discourse remains relatively underdeveloped within the larger body of globalization literature.
Given the above suppositions, a brief review of topical discourse related to globalization by leading authors within the landscape architecture discipline offers needed elaboration. The following section presents summaries of leading authors’ discourse, identifies prominent themes, and suggests significant discursive correlations across disciplines. Prominent themes include critical regionalism, ecological modernization and deglobalization, ecological democracy, the political economy and landscape change, landscape perception, international education, and landscape epidemiology.
Globalization and Landscape Architecture: Topical Discourse Among Leading Authors
Simon Swaffield and Jackie Bowring address a range of globalization and landscape architecture–related issues both individually and as coauthors, including critical regionalism and culturally mediated landscape. In Think Global, Think Local: Critical Regionalism and Landscape Architecture, Swaffield and Bowring identify significant themes related to globalization and landscape architecture, including themes reminiscent of Manuel Castells’s proposition that “spaces of flows” are replacing the “space of place.” They cite Lane’s reference to the transformative influence of digital media on landscape architecture, as well as, Yeung and Savage’s idea of the homogenization of commercial and “touristic” settings under the influence of global consumer markets (Bowring & Swaffield, 2004).
Swaffield’s and Bowring’s conception of “critical regionalism” is consistent with well-established ideas coined by Tzonis, Lefaivre, and Frampton, as well as J. B. Jackson, suggesting a more critical response by landscape architecture to the integration of universal aesthetics and the technological imperatives of globalization, utilizing, instead, regionalist traditions of the vernacular, theories of place, and historic preservation. Bowring’s and Swaffield’s proposal for a landscape approach to critical regionalism is consistent with Frampton’s identification of the landscape’s redemptive and mediating qualities, recognizing the inherently reactive response of landscape to globalization. Their argument for more direct and reflective experience as a means of capturing greater sense of place and region suggests several design concepts relevant to landscape architecture, including: tactility, eco-revelatory tectonics, and focus on occupation rather than aesthetics.
Notable topics within their work correlate with disciplinary issues identified in the globalization and landscape architecture literature under Bergesen’s third dimension, including (a) globalization, the invention of modern vernaculars, and the mediatory potential of built form (Umbach & Hüppauf, 2005); (b) the architecture of resistance (Foster, 1983); (c) postmodernism and imagery (Docherty, 1993); (d) cultural studies and critical regionalism (Herr, 1996); (e) phenomenology and place, tectonics, and electronic media (Nesbitt, 1996); (f) architectural identity and globalization (Tzonis & Lefaivre, 2003); and (g) authenticity and place-based fantasies (Kollin, 2007).
Ingrid Sarlov-Herlin, Jorgen Primdahl, and Simon Swaffield address the relationship between globalization and landscape architecture associated with urbanization, agriculture, and rural culture. Sarlov-Herlin in her description of “landscape globalization” characterizes the transformation of contemporary landscape as (a) a derivative of rapid urbanization and the disappearance of everyday landscapes within the urban fringe, (b) a proliferation of “characterless compensation landscapes” arising from formulaic mitigation of environmental impacts, (c) the abandonment of uplands and marginal areas in response to the movement of agricultural production to more intensive areas, and (d) as dramatic and unpredictable consequences of climate change (Herlin, 2004).
Swaffield and Primdahl have amplified this discourse, addressing the relationship between globalization and contemporary agricultural landscape change focused on emerging market conditions, technological developments, and sociocultural conditions (Swaffield & Primdahl, 2010) Specifically, they examine the way in which the global market liberalization and international sustainability policy influence the agricultural landscape in Europe, Asia-Pacific and the United States ecologically, in terms of urbanization, biodiversity, sustainable landscape management, and climate change.
Robert Hewitt, Hala Nassar, and Carl Steinitz offer conceptual approaches to global and international scale landscape assessment concerning the relationship between industrialized societies and environmental change—including the processes of globalization. Aspects of Hewitt’s and Nassar’s work are derived from ecological modernization theory, originating in the early 1980s primarily in western European countries, notably Germany, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. Earlier contributions to its theoretical development emphasizes the role of technological innovation in environmental reform (Beck, Giddens, & Lash, 1994), and the role of the state and markets in ecological transformation, including its institutional and cultural dynamics.
During the last decade, ecological modernization discourse has broadened theoretically and geographically to include examinations of the ecological transformation of consumption, and global processes. An important stream of thought within this literature examines historically reactive responses to modernization and globalization defined by Janicke as “reflexive modernization” (Janicke & Jorgens, 2000). Examples of “reflexive modernization” include (a) the institutionalization of nature conservation, (b) the merging of the environmental movement and nature conservation, (c) the growth of more aggressive environmental concepts and alliances such as the animal protection movement, (d) the advent of “green services,” and (e) the development of nature values in cultural landscapes (Van Koppen, 2004).
Steinitz’s work is especially useful as a landscape issues framework for examining reactive responses contemplated by ecological modernization and deglobalization at three overlapping scales: global, regional, and local (Steinitz, 2004). Operationally Steinitz’s framework predicts that the more global influences expand and regional/local influences contract the more pronounced the negative aspects of globalization become.
Hewitt and Nassar (2006) cite Serrano’s use of the term deglobalization to describe reactive responses to globalization processes, which include the reversal of negative aspects of globalization through the development of “more inclusive and sustainable societies in an extremely unequal and environmentally-damaged world (pp. 74-77).” Their work is particularly useful in relating globalization to an emerging class of landscapes associated with the activities of international organizations advocating universal values and cultural diversity (Nassar & Hewitt, 2004); and with the effects of international medical protocols in response to the threat of global epidemic—described by Hewitt and Nassar in terms of landscape epidemiology.
Randy Hester’s recent work in landscape architecture is broadly related to ecological sociology and environmental justice scholarship addressing globalization and ecological democracy. Emphasizing both ecological and democratic processes, Hester proposes the transformation of urban areas to “withstand short duration shocks.” He suggests that the development of “compelling not just consumptive environments” and “multiple avenues of stewardship,” which incorporate human values, everyday behavior, and participatory action can critically redress globalization related to climate change, economic exploitation, loss of culture, degraded biological diversity, social division, and loss of community.
Hester’s approach to globalization, described as “glocalization,” emphasizes (a) direct face to face participation; (b) the incorporation of “local wisdom,” and global consequences in democratic decision making; (c) a heightened respect for place attachment; (d) enhancing traditional culture; and (e) the preservation of social-ecological networks. Hester emphasizes local community interests in relation to global interests and ecological integrity; proposing that ecological issues and problems transcend boundaries, and that democratic practices can be adapted to a wide variety of decision-making conditions in response to global change.
James Wescoat suggests a conceptual approach to globalization and context sensitive landscape architecture based on Kenneth Boulding’s idea of an “integrative power” capable of linking political and economic power with humanistic values and landscape change. This approach acknowledges the significant but relatively small amount of literature on the relationship of private capital to landscape change, suggesting that the attainment of sustainable landscape change is as much the result of political-economic factors as cultural-ecological factors.
Within this broader rubric, Wescoat identifies two areas related to globalization: (a) finance connected to risk management and innovation and (b) “glocal” change. Speaking to the topic of globalization and risk management, Wescoat emphasizes two types of global land use and land cover changes: (a) those driven by global scale processes like greenhouse warming and (b) those related to aggregated local change.
Wescoat’s approach to glocalization is particularly useful in relating a number landscape topics he identifies as local and global, including (a) ubiquitous networks of international tourist destinations and virtual landscape, (b) antiglobal and nostalgic public sentiment, (c) the increasing interest in fortified, atomized, and communitarian places, (d) the broader phenomena of economic stagnation, political devolution, and (e) globally induced socioenvironmental distress.
Charles Waldheim and Alan Berger ground their thoughts on the relationship landscape and globalization in economic and geographic processes associated with industrialization, resulting in distinct urban spatial organization and form reflecting previous spatial obsolete modes. Waldheim and Berger suggest a contemporary second shift influenced by globalization that is transforming industry from nationally decentralized to internationally distributed organizations. Explained in terms of logistics landscape, this shift is characterized by vast landscapes devoted to global supply chains for distribution and delivery, consumption and convenience, and accommodation and disposal. Waldheim and Berger’s concept of logistical landscape is consistent with aspects of Waldheim’s “landscape urbanism,” which suggests that contemporary urban order is best offers the most appropriate medium upon which to base urban order for the contemporary city for better ways to deal with complex urban projects.
Robert Thayer Jr. addresses globalization and landscape architecture in terms of technology, communications and media, sustainability, and bioregionalism. Thayer identifies the ubiquitous proliferation of digital imagery and technologically simulated landscapes as principal characteristics of a globalizing cultural landscape, suggesting that sustainable development must ultimately balance primal human attitudes related to “topophilia, technophobia, and technophilia.” In response, he proposes a piece-by-piece transformation of our world from one based on the development of landscape, which is local, recognizes resource conservation and consumption, is interrelated with community-based living systems, and preserves essential ecological characteristics in the form of sustainable landscape technology.
Thayer expands on these themes in his description of landscape “relocalization” in response to declining global energy resources and the advance of information technologies, suggesting profound changes in the perceived and actual size, scale, and grain of developed landscape.
Summary: Topical Discourse Among Leading Authors
Like the literature identified in the WorldCat.org Database survey related to globalization and landscape architecture, the above literature concerning contemporary discourse among leading authors from landscape architecture is clustered around specific dimensions, categories and/or topics. Specifically, much of the reviewed work on critical regionalism and culturally mediated landscape addresses topics concerned with the global diffusion of phenomena locally, especially those phenomena related to traditional and global culture, the scholarship of place, communication, resistance and identity, the environment, and agriculture. Inferential connections to other dimensions of globalization (its political and economic processes) are also evident in the scholarship on political and economic humanism, and on critical regionalism, especially its subcategories related to material culture and the influence of technology on the built environment.
A review of the discourse surrounding ecological democracy is also largely clustered around topics concerning the global diffusion of phenomena locally. As with the literature addressing critical regionalism, it emphasizes topics related to traditional and global culture, the discourse of place, communication, resistance and identity, and the environment. While the identified discourse on ecological democracy certainly finds support in broader subject areas of ecological sociology and environmental justice, it does not yet appear to have crossed significantly into topical areas within other dimensions of globalization.
In retrospect, the discourse concerning ecological modernization/deglobalization and the political economy of landscape change are inferentially correlated across the three dimensions of globalization. Both discourses address broader global processes and systems, contemplated in Bergesen’s second dimension; and both address the significant relationships between global political/economic processes and local change evidenced in Bergesen’s second dimension. Because the two disciplinary streams of thought are intimately tied to the landscape and local culture, they also find significant support in the literature concerning the diffusion of global phenomena locally (Bergesen’s third dimension). They offer specific landscape associated discourse to the lesser developed areas of globalization literature addressing analytical methodology across local and global scales, and global epidemiology.
Common threads within authors’ discourses related to agriculture, urbanization, industrialization, declining global energy resources, and advanced information technologies suggest profound changes in size, scale, and grain of developed and undeveloped landscape, reflecting global influence associated with broad themes within the globalization literature. Common threads within these discourses also correlate across a wide range of discipline-related topics such as geography, agriculture, urbanism, politics and economics, the environment, sustainability/development, communications and media, technology, governance, and society. The contours of this discourse clearly fall within Bergesen’s third dimension addressing the dispersion of global phenomena, and inferentially within Bergesen’s second and third dimensions of globalization.
Summary: Globalization and Landscape Architecture
As a means of serving the needs of further research on globalization in general and landscape architecture in particular, the preceding review sought to place the surveyed literature on globalization and landscape architecture in context of the larger body of globalization literature through a systematic review of (a) the cogent definitions and histories of globalization, (b) the works of recognized authors on the subject, and (c) the body of existing literature available through the WorldCat.org Database.
In recognition of Fiss and Hirsch’s (2005) suggestion that contextual discourse surrounding globalization still demands considerable interpretation, the review has addressed interpretation through better defining discursive contours, limitations, and scopes. The details of these contours are most visibly illustrated in the figures indicating correlations and disparities in areas of the literature associated with its primary components and discipline-related subject matter. The review has suggested 10 subject categories of globalization arrayed in three principal dimensions: the political and economic processes, the large-scale systems and processes, and the phenomenological aspects of globalization, with correlations and discrepancies between these 10 subject categories denoted across 17 identifiable discipline-related subject areas.
Interpretive analysis of these correlations and discrepancies, if measured against Fishman (1978) and Fairclough’s (1992) corollaries to Fisch and Hirsch’s maxim on discursive interpretation, suggests that discourse on globalization over the last several decades has diffused unevenly across the three conceptual dimensions. Interpretive analysis also suggests that the clustering of discipline-related subject matter across dimensions is more pronounced in areas related to economics, politics, the environment, business, governance, development, culture, and education; and that other discipline-related subjects are less and sometimes much less well represented. These observations are confirmed through repeated WorldCat.com Database searches under a variety of search methods ranging from very broad (entire text searches) to very narrow (subject searches), which lends some measure of reliability and predictability to interpretive analysis of the more than 30,000 citations.
To provide consistent criteria for comparative analysis of the literature on globalization and landscape architecture, the review has followed the methods and conceptual organization established in review of the more general literature. Accordingly, the review identified a much smaller body of literature related to globalization with considerable scope across the various discipline-related subject matter but confined primarily to topics associated with the dispersion of global phenomena. A subcomponent of this smaller body of surveyed literature was more inferentially related to landscape architecture, but more closely related to other fields. In short, while there are not great quantities of scholarship associated with landscape architecture and globalization, the existing scholarship seems to address most of the important discipline-related subject areas, if not the entirety of its dimensions.
As with the literature review in general, the review specific to landscape architecture provided relevant examples of citations available in the broader searches. These exemplars are cited in the sections on references and bibliography, and should be considered (for purposes of the review) samples of the scholarship available within the larger database of more than 30,000 citations. Separate references and bibliographies are included for globalization literature in general and globalization and landscape architecture literature, specifically. A reference list of significant works in landscape architecture is also included to complement the review of prominent author’s discourse on landscape architecture and globalization. As a whole, this list of references is intended to complement and contextualize extant discourse on landscape architecture and globalization, as well as provide correlation between the more general literature on globalization.
As such, it provides a significant source of data and analytical methods, which remain useful to students of the subject, scholars interested in the relationship between the broader topic and landscape architecture, as well as a more general scholarly audience. Its methods are easily repeated and verifiable, and its sources and authors should remain current for well in to the foreseeable future, as the cited work spans decades and is derived from relatively large data sets, which are unlikely to change appreciably.
Special thanks to James Wescoat, Marcia McNally, Hala Nassar, and Barbara Faga for participation in the Globalization and Leadership working group with the Landscape Futures Initiative.
Declaration of Conflicting Interests The author(s) declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.
Funding The author(s) disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research and/or authorship of this article: The working group research was supported by the Landscape Architecture Foundation and the College of the Arts, Architecture, and Humanities at Clemson University.
- © The Author(s) 2014
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Robert R. Hewitt is an associate professor of landscape architecture at Clemson University, whose scholarly interests include globalization, international education, and international practice in landscape architecture. He has authored more than 30 peer-reviewed articles, has co-chaired three international conferences, and his work has been cited or reviewed in more than 60 national and international publications. He is the recipient of more than 25 honors and awards for teaching research and service, including Rome Prize finalist.